Background Readings


Arctic Region Policy, National Security Presidential Directive and Homeland Security Presidential Directive, NSPD-66 (Jan. 9, 2009)

National Defense Authorization Act, §1753 (2020)

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United Nations (Dec. 1982)

Department of Defense Documents

B. Stein et al., Climate Adaptation for DoD Natural Resource Managers: A Guide to Incorporating Climate Considerations into Integrated Natural Resource Management Plans, National Wildlife Federation (2019)

S. Army War College, Implications of Climate Change for the U.S. Army (2019) 

S. Coast Guard, Arctic Strategic Outlook (2019) 

S. Dep’t of Defense, Off. of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, Report on Effects of a Changing Climate to the Department of Defense (2019)

S. Navy, Chief of Naval Operations, Strategic Outlook for the Arctic (2019)

Ted Stevens, Sullivan Works to Include New DoD Arctic Security Studies Center in NDAA Bill (Jun. 12, 2020)

Congressional Documents

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (Jun. 2020)

Climate Change and U.S. Security in the Arctic, Testimony Before the Subcomm. on Transportation and Maritime Security of the H. Comm. on Homeland Security, 116th Cong. 1-7 (2019) (statement of Abbie Tingstad, The Rand Corp.)

Report to Congress, Department of Defense Arctic Strategy, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (Jun. 2019)

Other Government Documents

David Reidmiller, et. al., Fourth National Climate Assessment Vol. 2: Full Report, U.S. Global Change Research Program (2018)

David Reidmiller, et. al., Fourth National Climate Assessment Vol. 2: Summary Findings, U.S. Global Change Research Program (2018)

David Reidmiller, et. al., Fourth National Climate Assessment Vol. 2: Report-in-Brief, U.S. Global Change Research Program (2018)

S. Gov’t Accountability Off., GAO-18-206, Climate Change: DOD Needs to Better Incorporate Adaptation into Planning and Collaboration at Overseas Installations (Nov. 2017)

S. Gov’t Accountability Off., GAO-19-166, Climate Change: Activities of Selected Agencies to Address Potential Impact on Global Migration (Jan. 2019)

S. Gov’t Accountability Off., GAO-16-454, Climate Change: Selected Governments Have Approached Adaptation through Laws and Long-Term Plans (May 2016)

S. Gov’t Accountability Off., GAO-19-453, Climate Change: DOD Needs to Assess Risk and Provide Guidance on Use of Climate Projections in Installation Master Plans and Facilities Designs, (Jun. 2019)

S. Gov’t Accountability Off., GAO-19-625T, Climate Change: Opportunities to Reduce Federal Fiscal Exposure (2019)

Scholarship & Other Research

Allison & B. Mandler, Oil and Gas in the U.S. Arctic, American Geosciences Institute (2018)

Heather A. Conley and Matthew Melino, The Implications of U.S. Policy Stagnation toward the Arctic Region, Center for Strategic & International Studies (May 2019)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Global Warming of 1.5°C (2018)

John Conger, et al., A Climate Security Plan for America: A Presidential Plan for Combating the Security Risks of Climate Change, The Center for Climate and Security (Sept. 2019)

John Gowdy, Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy, Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics (Jan. 2007)

John Steinbruner, Rising Temps and Emerging Threats: the Intersection of Climate and National Security in the 21st Century, Vermont Journal of Environmental Law (2014)

Leah Burrows, Finding the right “dose” for solar geoengineering, Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (Mar. 11, 2019)

Linda Kinstler, Big tech firms are racing to track climate refugees, MIT Technology Review (May 17, 2019)

Luis Roberto Barroso, Technological Revolution, Democratic Recession and Climate Change: The Limits of Law in a Changing World, Carr Center for Human Rights Policy (Sept. 2019)

Marie Alegre, et. al., Challenges and Opportunities of Oil and Gas Investment in the Arctic, Barclays (Spring 2015)

Mark P. Nevitt, The Commander in Chief’s Authority to Combat Climate Change, 37 Cardozo Law Review 437 (2015)

Mark P. Nevitt, On Environmental, Climate Change & National Security Law, University of Pennsylvania Law School (Sept. 12, 2019)

Robert W. Orttung & Katherine Weingartner, S. Arctic Policymaking Under Trump and Obama, PONARS Eurasia (Apr. 2019)

Shiloh Rainwater, International Law and the “Globalization” of the Arctic: Assessing the Rights of Non-Arctic States in the High North, 30 Emory International Law Review 115 (2015)

Thad Allen, The Arctic Is Integral to U.S. National Security, Council on Foreign Relations (Mar. 2017)

The Nat’l Security, Military, and Intelligence Panel on Climate Change, A Security Threat Assessment of Global Climate Change, The Center for Climate and Security, The Council on Strategic Risks (Feb. 2020)

Unlocking the Inclusive Growth Story of the 21st Century, The New Climate Economy: The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (Aug. 2018)

News Articles, Magazines, Blogs

David Titley, A military view on climate change: it’s eroding our national security and how we should prepare for it, The Conversation (Oct. 6, 2019)

Elizabeth Kirk, What Laws are in Place to Protect the Arctic?, Newsweek (Sep. 12, 2016)

Helene Cooper, Military Drills in Arctic Aim to Counter Russia, but the First Mission is to Battle the Cold, The New York Times (Apr. 12, 2019)

John Madeira, National Security Implications of a US Strategic Port in the Arctic, American Security Project (Jul. 8, 2019)

Molly Schreiber, New U.S. Senate defense bill requires Arctic strategic ports, attention on Russia and China, Arctic Today (Jul. 2, 2019)

Neta C. Crawford, The Defense Department is worried about climate change – and also a huge carbon emitter, The Conversation (Jun. 12, 2019)

Russia launches new nuclear-powered icebreaker in bid to open up Arctic, The Guardian (May 26, 2019)

Troy Bouffard & Elizabeth Buchanan, Establishing an Arctic Security Institution: Essentials From NORAD and NATO, RealClearDefense (Mar. 3, 2020)

Other Media (videos/documentaries/visual news)

5-Part Series: The Arctic and U.S. National Security, Woodrow Wilson Center & Polar Institute (Apr. 2019)

Panel VII - The Arctic: National Security and Oceans Law for the New Maritime Frontier, American Bar Association (Nov. 17, 2017)

Sherri Goodman, Senior Fellow, Woodrow Wilson Int’l Center, Climate and Security, Remarks at Environment and Energy Study Inst.: Climate and Security in an Era of Great Power Competition and Global Disruption (Jan. 29, 2020)