Background Readings

Acharya, A., 2009. Targeting terrorist financing: international cooperation and new regimes. Routledge, London; New York.

Allison, Graham, Tobey, William, 2015. Lessons Learned from Past WMD Negotiations. Washington, D.C.

Allison, G.T., 1971. Essence of decision; explaining the Cuban missile crisis. Little, Brown, Boston.

Amani, K., n.d. Kujenga Amani » Mediating in Madagascar: Bypassing the AU Ban on Coup Legitimization.

Appiah-Marfo, Samuel, 2014. International Negotiation: “The Cuban Missile Crisis” Template for Social Change.

Ashour, O., 2010. The de-radicalization of Jihadists: transforming armed Islamist movements. Routledge, London; New York.

Aston, C.C., 1982. A contemporary crisis : political hostage-taking and the experience of Western Europe. Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn.

Babbitt, E.F., 2009. The Evolution of International Conflict Resolution: From Cold War to Peacebuilding. Negotiation Journal 25, 539–549. doi:10.1111/j.1571-9979.2009.00244.x

Babbitt, E.F. 2014 “Mediation and the Prevention of Mass Atrocities.” THE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS: RALLYING TO THE R2P CAUSE? Monica Serrano and Thomas Weiss, eds. Routledge.29- 47.

Bapat, N.A., 2006. State Bargaining with Transnational Terrorist Groups. International Studies Quarterly 50, 213–229.

Barkat, J.S., 2002. The effect of unilateral conciliatory initiatives on negotiation ripeness in seemingly intractable conflicts (Ph.D.). Columbia University, United States — New York.

Barrett, R., 2014. The Islamic State. The Soufan Group.

Baumann, C.E., 1973. The diplomatic kidnappings. A revolutionary tactic of urban terrorism. Nijhoff, The Hague.

Betancourt, I., 2010. Even silence has an end : my six years of captivity in the Colombian jungle. Penguin Press, New York.

Bhatia, M.V., 2005. Fighting words: naming terrorists, bandits, rebels and other violent actors. Third World Quarterly 26, 5–22. doi:10.1080/0143659042000322874

Birkeland, Ø., 2014. The Impact of Terrorist Proscriptions on Peace Processes- Sri Lanka’s 5th Peace Process.

Bok, S., 1989. A strategy for peace: human values and the threat of war, 1st ed. ed. Pantheon Books, New York.

Bok, S., 1984. Secrets: on the ethics of concealment and revelation, First Vintage Books edition. ed. Vintage Books, New York.

Bok, S., 1979. Lying: moral choice in public and private life, First Vintage Books edition. ed. Vintage Books, New York.

Bosworth, S.W., 2009. Negotiations: The United States and North Korea. Fletcher F. World Aff. 33, 5.

Byman, D., 2009. Talking with Insurgents: A Guide for the Perplexed. Washington Quarterly 32, 125–137. doi:10.1080/01636600902775565

Byman, D., 2006. The Decision to Begin Talks with Terrorists: Lessons for Policymakers. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, 403–414. doi:10.1080/10576100600703996

Callimachi, R., 2014. Paying Ransoms, Europe Bankrolls Qaeda Terror. The New York Times.

Cantey, Jr., Joseph M., 2014. Parsing Parley: Strategy and Outcome in Negotiations Between States and Non-state Armed Groups (PhD Dissertation). Duke University.

Chayes, A., 2013. Chapter VII½: Is Jus Post Bellum Possible? Eur J Int Law 24, 291–305. doi:10.1093/ejil/chs089

Chayes, A., Chayes, A.H., Spitzer, E., 1985. Space Weapons: The Legal Context. Daedalus 114, 193–218.

Chayes, A.H., 2006. “Security in an Age of Anxiety”: What Can Verification Offer? The Fletcher forum of world affairs. 30, 87–100.

Clemens Jr., W.C., 2011. Can – Should – Must We Negotiate with Evil?*. Pacific Focus 26, 316–335. doi:10.1111/j.1976-5118.2011.01067.x

Coll, S., n.d. War by Other Means [WWW Document]. The New Yorker. URL (accessed 6.11.15).

Cronin, Audrey Kurth, 2015. ISIS Is Not a Terrorist Group. Foreign Affairs 94, 87–98.

de Waal, A., 2007. Reflections on the Difficulties of Defining Darfur’s Crisis as Genocide. Harv. Hum. Rts. J. 20, 25.

DeYoung, K., Goldman, A., 2014. After Foley killing, U.S. defends refusal to pay ransom to terrorist groups that kidnap. The Washington Post.

Dobbins, James, Malkasian, Carter, 2015. Time to Negotiate in Afghanistan. Foreign Affairs 94, 53–64.

Dolnik, A., 2003. Contrasting Dynamics of Crisis Negotiations: Barricade versus Kidnapping Incidents. International Negotiation 8, 495–526.

Dolnik, A., 2002. Justice Beyond Question?  Military Responses to International Terrorism and Just War Theory. Perspectives: Central European Review of International Affairs 18, 21.

Dolnik, A., Fitzgerald, K.M., 2008. Negotiating hostage crises with the new terrorists [WWW Document]. URL

Duyvesteyn, I., Schuurman, B., 2011. The Paradoxes of Negotiating with Terrorist and Insurgent Organisations. Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History 39, 677–692. doi:10.1080/03086534.2011.615612

ElBaradei, M., 2015. Toward a Safer and More Humane World. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 39, 127–130.

Ersen, M.U., Özen, C., IOS Press, 2010. Use of force in countering terrorism. Ios Press, Amsterdam; Washington, DC.

Faure, G.O., 2015. Negotiating Hostages with Terrorists: Paradoxes and Dilemmas. International Negotiation 20, 129–145. doi:10.1163/15718069-12341301

Faure, G.O., 2008. Negotiating with Terrorists: A Discrete Form of Diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 3, 179–200. doi:10.1163/187119108X321512

Faure, G.O., 2003. Negotiating with Terrorists: The Hostage Case. International Negotiation 8, 469–494. doi:10.1163/1571806031310752

Feste, K., 2010. Terrorist Negotiation Strategy in Lebanon, in: Faure, G.O., Zartman, I.W. (Eds.), Negotiating with Terrorists: Strategy, Tactics, and Politics. Routledge, London; New York.

Fisher, R., n.d. Negotiating with Taliban (Mnookin - Fisher Debate).

Frydenlund, I., 2011. Canonical ambiguity and differential practices: Buddhist monks in wartime Sri Lanka. University of Oslo, Humanities, Oslo.

Galbraith, Jean. 2015. Ending Security Council Resolutions. Penn Law: Legal Scholarship Repository.

Gelb, L.H., 2008. In the End, Every President Talks to the Bad Guys. The Washington Post.

Glennon, Michael J., 2003. Why the Security Council Failed [WWW Document]. Foreign Affairs. URL (accessed 6.23.15).

Glennon, Michael J., 2002. Preempting Terrorism: The Case for Anticipatory Self-Defense [WWW Document]. The Weekly Standard. URL (accessed 6.22.15).

Glennon, M.J., 2013. Pre-empting Profileration: International Law, Moralty, and Nuclear Weapons. European journal of international law 24, 109–127.

Goerzig, C., 2011. Egypt’s Gama’a Islamiya: Change Through Debate?, in: Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing and Diplomacy. United States Institute of Peace Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 203–20.

Goerzig, C., 2010. Talking to terrorists: concessions and the renunciation of violence. Routledge, London; New York.

Gonzalez-Perez, M., 2008. Women and terrorism: female activity in domestic and international terror groups. Routledge, London; New York.

Green, R., 2000. Women as partners for peace. Preventive diplomacy : stopping wars before they start, 83–99.

Hancock, L.E., Mitchell, C.R., 2007. Zones of peace. Kumarian Press, Bloomfield, CT.

Haspeslagh, S., 2013a. “Listing terrorists”: the impact of proscription on third-party efforts to engage armed groups in peace processes – a practitioner’s perspective. Critical Studies on Terrorism 6, 189–208. doi:10.1080/17539153.2013.765706

Hendrickson, D.C., 1997. In Defense of Realism: A Commentary on Just and Unjust Wars. Ethics & International Affairs 11, 19–53. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7093.1997.tb00016.x

Hill, Thomas E., 1991. “Making Exceptions Without Abandoning PrincipleViolence, Terrorism, and Justice, eds. Frey and Morris.

Hoffmann, n.d. The Political Ethics of International Relations.

Höglund, K., n.d. Tactics in Negotiations between States and Extremists: The Role of Cease-Fires and Counterterrorist Measures, in: Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing and Diplomacy. pp. 221–244.

Jervis, R., 1997. System effects: complexity in political and social life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.

Jervis, R., 1976. Perception and misperception in international politics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.

Jones, P., 2015a. Talking with al Qaeda: Is There a Role for Track Two? International Negotiation 20, 177–198. doi:10.1163/15718069-12341304

Keenan, J.F., Philosophy Documentation Center, 1988. Taking Aim at the Principle of Double Effect: Reply to Khatchadourian. International Philosophical Quarterly 28, 201–205. doi:10.5840/ipq19882823

Kennan, G.F., 1985. Morality and Foreign Policy. Foreign Affairs 64, 205–218. doi:10.2307/20042569

Khatchadourian, H., 2003. War, terrorism, genocide, and the quest for peace: contemporary problems in political ethics. Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, N.Y.

Khatchadourian, H., 1998. The morality of terrorism. P. Lang, New York.

Khatchadourian, H., Philosophy Documentation Center, 1988. Is the Principle of Double Effect Morally Acceptable?: International Philosophical Quarterly 28, 21–30. doi:10.5840/ipq198828141

Kydd, A.H., 2005. Trust and mistrust in international relations. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.

Lanz, D., 2011. Who Gets a Seat at the Table? A Framework for Understanding the Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in Peace Negotiations. International Negotiation 16, 275–295. doi:10.1163/138234011X573048

Lebow, R.N., 2007. Coercion, cooperation, and ethics in international relations. Routledge, New York.

Lebow, R.N., 2003. The tragic vision of politics ethics, interests, and orders. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Limbert, J., n.d. 444 Days: Memoirs of an Iran Hostage | Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training.

Limbert, J., n.d. 444 Days — The End Game | Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training.

Limbert, J.W., 2008. Negotiating with the Islamic Republic of Iran :raising the chances for success—fifteen points to remember /. Washington, D.C. :

Luban, D., 2007. Legal ethics and human dignity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York.

Luban, D., 1985. Bargaining and Compromise: Recent Work on Negotiation and Informal Justice. Philosophy & Public Affairs 14, 397–416.

Luban, D.J., 2015. Human Rights Thinking and the Laws of War (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2589082). Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY.

Margalit, A., 2010. On compromise and rotten compromises. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

McIntosh, C., 2015. Counterterrorism as War: Identifying the Dangers, Risks, and Opportunity Costs of U.S. Strategy Toward Al Qaeda and Its Affiliates. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38, 23–38. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2014.974408

Menkel-Meadow, C., 2010. Compromise, Negotiation, and Morality. Negotiation Journal 26, 483–499.

Miller, Carl, 2011. Is it Possible and Preferable to Negotiate with Terrorists? Defense Studies 11, 145–185. doi:10.1080/14702436.2011.553109

Mnookin, R.H., 2010. Bargaining with the devil: when to negotiate, when to fight, 1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed. ed. Simon & Schuster, New York.

Mnookin, R.H., n.d. Negotiating with the Taliban (Mnookin - Fisher Debate).

Mnookin, R.H., Eiran, E., n.d. Is Unilateralism Always Bad? Negotiation Lessons from Israel’s “Unilateral” Gaza Withdrawal.

Mnookin, R.H., Kornhauser, L., 1979. Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce. The Yale Law Journal 88, 950–997. doi:10.2307/795824

Mosendz, P., 2014. How Qatar Helped Free an American Hostage Without Paying Ransom [WWW Document]. The Wire. URL (accessed 6.29.15).

Nathan, L., 2012. Community of insecurity SADC’s struggle for peace and security in Southern Africa. Ashgate, Farnham; Burlington, VT.

Nathan, L., 2011. Interests, ideas and ideology: South Africa’s Policy on Darfur. Afr Aff (Lond) 110, 55–74. doi:10.1093/afraf/adq058

Neumann, P.R., 2007. Negotiating with Terrorists. Foreign Affairs 86, 128–138.

Neustadt, R.E., May, E.R., 1986. Thinking in time: the uses of history for decision-makers. Free Press ; Collier Macmillan, New York : London.

O’Kane, E., 2015. Talking to the Enemy? The Role of the Back-Channel in the Development of the Northern Ireland Peace Process. Contemporary British History 29, 401–420. doi:10.1080/13619462.2014.987232

Patterson, E., 2007. Just war thinking: morality and pragmatism in the struggle against contemporary threats. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.

Pinker, S., 2011. The better angels of our nature: why violence has declined. Viking, New York.

Powell, J., 2015. Terrorists at the Table: Why Negotiating is the Only Way to Peace. Palgrave Macmillan Trade.

Price, E., 2013. Literature on Kidnapping for Ransom and for Political Concessions. Perspectives on Terrorism 7.

Primoratz, I., 2007. Civilian immunity in war. Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York.

Primoratz, I., 1997. The Morality of Terrorism. Journal of Applied Philosophy 14, 221–233. doi:10.1111/1468-5930.00059

Pruitt, D.G., 2015. Prenegotiation Development of Optimism in Intractable Conflict. International Negotiation 20, 59–72. doi:10.1163/15718069-12341297

Pruitt, D.G., 2008. Back-channel Communication in the Settlement of Conflict. International Negotiation 13, 37–54. doi:10.1163/138234008X297922

Putnam, R.D., 1988. Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games. International Organization 42, 427–460.

Rapoport, D.C., 2008. Terrorism: critical concepts in political science. Routledge, London.

Rapoport, D.C., Alexander, Y., 2013a. The Morality of Terrorism: Religious and Secular Justifications. Elsevier.

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Rodin, D., 2002. War and self-defense. Clarendon Press ; Oxford University Press, Oxford; New York.

Rosenfeld, J.E., 2011. Terrorism, identity and legitimacy: the four waves theory and political violence. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY.

Richard H. (Ed.), Power, Principles, and Interests: A Reader in World Politics. Ginn Press, Lexington, MA, pp. 109–124.

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Sharp, P., British International Studies Association, 2009. Diplomatic theory of international relations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York.

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Toros, H., 2012a. Terrorism, Talking and Transformation: A Critical Approach. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, pp. 42–64.

Toros, H., 2008a. Terrorists, scholars and ordinary people: confronting terrorism studies with field experiences. Critical Studies on Terrorism 1, 279–292. doi:10.1080/17539150802184652

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