Background Readings

Barnard-Wills, David. This is Not a Cyber War, it’s a…? International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, Vol. 1, January-March: 13-23.

Chalfant, Morgan. Former CIA Director: Don’t Call Russian Election Hacking ‘Act of War.” The Hill. Retrived from (April 11, 2017). 

Clapper, James R., Lettre, Marcel, Rogers, Michael S. Joint Statement for the Record to the Senate Armed Services Committee Foreign Cyber Threats to the United States. (2017, January 5).

Damrosch, Lori Fisler, Politics Across Borders:Nonintervention and Nonforcible Influence Over Domestic Affairs, 83 Am. J. Int’l L. 1

Grim, Ryan & Cherkis, Jason, Bernie Sanders’ Campaign Faced a Fake News Tsunami.  Where Did It Come From?,, Mar. 13, 2017.

Hathaway, Oona, et al., The Law of Cyber Attack, 100 Cal. L. Rev. 817

Harding, Luke, Click for Regime Change: Vladimir Putin has exposed democracy’s technical frailty—all the way to the White House, Prospect Magazine, Jan. 13, 2017.

Hayden, Michael V. Donald Trump is Undermining Intelligence Gathering. The New York Times. (2017, March 9).

Hayden, Michael V. Former CIA Chief: Trump is Russia’s Useful Tool. The Washington Post. (2016, November 3).

Hayden, Michael V. Trump is Already Antagonizing the Intelligence Community, and That’s a Problem. The Washington Post. (2016, December 16). 

Hayden, Michael V. Trump’s Most Important New Partner: The Intelligence Community. The Washington Post. (2016, November 14). 

I.C.A. Background to “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections”: The Analytic and Cyber Incident Attribution. ICA 2017-01D. (2017, January 6). 

Leonhardt, David. Trump’s Russia Motives. The New York Times. Retrieved from the (2017, February 21).

Lipton, Eric., Sanger, David E., Shane, Scott. The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S. The New York Times. (2017, April 4). 

Lynn III, William J. Defending a New Domain: The Pentagon’s Cyberstrategy. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 89, No. 5 September/October 2010: 97-108. 

Margulies, Peter. Sovereignty and Cyber Attacks: Technology’s Challenge to the Law of State Responsibility. Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 14, 2013: 496-519. 

NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. Tallin Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Prepared by the International Group of Experts. (2013) 

Ohlin, Jens David, Did Russian Cyber-Interference in the 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Texas Law Review

Osnos, Evan., Remnick, David., Yaffa, Joshua. Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War. The New Yorker. Retrieved from the (2017, March 6).

Sanger, David, Obama Confronts Complexity of Using a Mighty Cyberarsenal Against Russia, New York Times, December 17, 2017

Sanger, David and Broad, William J. , Trump Inherits a Secret Cyberwar Against North Korean Missiles, New York Times, March 4, 2017

Sheffield, Matthew, Russia’s Blueprint for Political Chaos: Alleged Hacking May Just Be Part of Vladimir Putin’s Grand Game,, Dec. 29, 2016.

Shulman, Stephen & Bloom, Stephen. The Legitimacy of Foreign Intervention in Elections: the Ukrainian Response. Review of International Studies, Vol. 38, 2012: 445-471. 

Solis, Gary D. Cyber Warfare. Military Law Review, Vol. 219, Spring 2014: 1-52.

Stout, David. How Nazis Tried to Steer U.S. Politics. The New York Times. Retrieved from the (1997, July 23).

U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Russian Active Measures and Influence Campaigns. Testimony. (2017, March 30). 

Usdin, Steve. When a Foreign Government Interfered in a U.S. Election - to Reelect FDR. Politico Magazine. (2017, January 16).

Waxman, Matthew C. Cyber-Attacks and the Use of Force: Back to the Future Article 2(4). Yale Journal of International Law, Volume 36, Issue 2, 2011: 421-459.