Background Readings

Session 1 - Defining Grey Zone: Situating Grey Zone Tactics and Operations Within the International Security Landscape

Rosa Brooks, Rule of Law in the Gray Zone, Modern War Institute, July 2, 2018

Todd C. Huntley and Andrew Levitz, Controlling the Use of Power in the Shadows: Challenges in the Application of Jus in Bello to Clandestine and Unconventional War Activities, Harvard National Security Journal, Vol. 5 (2014)

Aurel Sari, Legal Aspects of Hybrid Warfare, Lawfare blog post, October 2, 2015 

Catherine Lotrionte, Reconsidering the Consequences for State-Sponsored Hostile Cyber Operations Under International Law, 3 The Cyber Defense Review 73 (2018) 

Michael N. Schmidt, Virtual Disenfranchisement: Cyber Election Meddling in the Grey Zones of International Law, 19 Chicago Journal of International Law 30 (2018)

General Joseph T. Votel et al., Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone, NDU Press (July 2016 )

Roger McDermott, Does Russia Have a Gerasimov Doctrine, Parameters 46, no. 1(Spring 2016)

Michael Waltzer, Soft War: The Ethics of Unarmed Conflict, Cambridge University Press (2017) Foreword

Lt/ Douglas Cantwell, Hybrid Warfare: Aggression and Coercion in the Gray Zone, ASIL Insights, Vol. 21, Issue 19, (2017)

Nicholas Heras, Gray Zones in the Middle East, CNAS, September 18, 2017

Robinson, Linda, Todd C. Helmus, Raphael S. Cohen, Alireza Nader, Andrew Radin, Madeline Magnuson, and Katya Migacheva, Modern Political Warfare: Current Practices and Possible Responses. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, (2018)

John Chambers, Countering Gray-zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russia’s ‘New Generation Warfare and Implications for the U.S. Army. Modern War Institute, (October 2016)

Robert R. Greene Sands “Language and Culture Note #1: On the Gray Zone and the Space Between War and Peace,” . Small Wars Journal. 

Philip Kapusta, The Gray Zone, Special Warfare Magazine, October – December 2015.

United States Special Operations Command, The Gray Zone, White Paper, (September 2015).

 Frank Hoffman, On Not-So-New-Warfare: Political Warfare vs. Hybrid Threats, War on the Rocks, (July 2014).

 Russian Hybrid Warfare and Other Dark Arts, Michael Kofman, War on the Rocks, (March 2016).

The Challenge of Operating in the Gray Zone, Special Warfare, October – December (2015)

Session 2 - Grey Zone Tactics and the Cyber Domain

Mary Ellen O’Connell, Cyber Security without Cyber War, Journal of Conflict & Security Law (2012), Vol. 17 No. 2, 187-209

Michael N. Schmitt, Grey Zones in the International Law of Cyberspace, Yale Journal of International Law Online (2017) 

George R. Lucas, Jr., State Sponsored Hacktivism and the Rise of ‘Soft’ War, Soft War: The Ethics of Unarmed Conflict, Cambridge University Press (2017)

Claire Finkelstein and Kevin Govern, Introduction: Cyber and the Changing Face of War (2015)

Oona A. Hathaway, Rebecca Crootof, Philip Levitz, Haley Nix, Aileen Nowlan, William Perdue & Julia Spiegel*, The Law of Cyber-Attack, 100 Calif. L. Rev. 817 (2012)

Barrie Sander; Democracy Under The Influence: Paradigms of State Responsibility for Cyber Influence Operations on Elections, Chinese Journal of International Law, 2019.

Watts, Sean, Low-Intensity Cyber Operations and the Principle of Non-Intervention (May 5, 2014).

Michael L. Gross and Tamar Meisels (eds) . Soft war: the ethics of unarmed conflict. Cambridge University Press. 2017.

Claire Finkelstein, Book Review, Michael L. Gross and Tamar Meisels (eds) . Soft war: the ethics of unarmed conflict. Cambridge University Press. 2017. (Review) .


Session 3 - Attribution and Proxy Wars: Determining Responsibility for Grey Zone Actions

Derek Jinks, State Responsibility for the Acts of Private Armed Groups, 4 Chicago Journal of International Law (2003)

C. Anthony Pfaff, Proxy War Ethics, Journal of National Security Law and Policy, Vol 9:305 (2017) 

Luca Ferro & Nele Verlinden, Neutrality During Armed Conflicts: A Coherent Approach to Third-State Support for Warring Parties, 17 Chinese Journal of International Law 15 (2018)

Gloria Gaggioli, Targeting Individuals Belonging to an Armed Group, 51 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 901 (2018)

Rory Cormac & Richard J. Aldrich, Grey is the New Black: Covert Action and Implausible Deniability, 94 International Affairs 477 (2018)

Neither War Nor Peace: The uses of constructive ambiguity. The Economist January 25, 2018

David Daoud, Meet the Proxies: How Iran Spreads is Empire through Terrorist Militias. The Tower (March 2015).

Byman, Daniel L. “Why Engage in Proxy War? A State’s Perspective.” Lawfare (2008).

Andrew Mumford, Proxy Warfare and the Future of Conflict, The RUSI Journal (2013)

James Pattison, “The Ethics of Arming Rebels,” Ethics & International Affairs 29, no. 4 (2015)

“Syria War: Who Are Russia’s Shadowy Wagner Mercenaries?” BBC News. (February 2018)

Session 4 - Past as Prologue: International Law and the Future of Grey Zone Environments

Michael Jefferson Adams, Jus Extra Bellum: Reconstructing the Ordinary, Realistic Conditions of Peace Harvard National Security Journal (2014 )  

Hal Brands, Paradoxes of the Gray Zone, Foreign Policy Research Institute, February 5, 2016

International Security Advisory Board: Report on Gray Zone Conflict, United States Department of State

David Carment et al., Gray zone mediation in the Ukraine crisis: comparing Crimea and Donbas (forthcoming 2019)

A. V. Demin, Soft Law Concept in a Globalized World: Issues and Prospects, Law: Journal of the Higher School of Economics 49 (2018)

Lord Jopling, Countering Russia’s Hybrid Threats: An Update (NATO Parliamentary Assembly, 2018)

Mihail Naydenov, Building the Capacity Of NATO’S Eastern European Members to Fight Hybrid War, 41 Information & Security 45 (2018)

Outplayed: Regaining Strategic Initiative in the Grey Zone. United Stated Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (2016)

Michael Mazaar, Mastering the Gray Zone: Understanding a Changing Era of Conflict, United States Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (2015) p. 126-137