Background Readings

Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War:  Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury

Etiology, Treatment and Prevention

D. T.  Acheson et al., Conditioned Fear and Extinction Learning Performance and Its Association with Psychiatric Symptoms in Active Duty Marines, 51 Psychoneuroendocrinology 495–505 (2015),

Chris J. Antal and Kathy Winings, Moral Injury, Soul Repair, and Creating a Place for Grace, 110 Religious Education 382-394 (2015), DOI:10.1080/00344087.2015.1063962

Russell Bryant Carr, Authentic Solicitude: What the Madness of Combat Can Teach Us About Authentically Being-With Our Patients, 9 International Journal of Psychology: Self Psychology 115-130 (2014)

Fear ItselfA mental illness caused by trauma may be one of the first to be understood in physical termsThe Economist, October 24, 2015. 

Matthew Feldner, Candice Monson & Matthew Friedman, A Critical Analysis of Approaches to Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions, 31 Behavior modification 80–116 (2007),

Edna Foa, Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Past, Present, and Future, 28 Depress. Anxiety 1043–7 (2011),

Charles W. Hoge & Christopher H. Warner, Estimating PTSD prevalence in US veterans: considering combat exposure, PTSD checklist cutpoints, and DSM-5, 75 The Journal of clinical psychiatry 1439–41 (2014).

Charles W. Hoge et al., Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning From Iraq, 358 The New England journal of med. 453–63 (2008), 

Charles W. Hoge et al., Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care, 351 The New England Journal of Med. 13-22 (2004).

Elisa A. Hurley, Combat Trauma and the Moral Risks of Memory Manipulating Drugs, 27 Journal of Applied Philosophy 221-245 (2010),

Łukasz Kamienski, Helping the Postmodern Ajax: Is Managing Combat Trauma Through Pharmacology a Faustian Bargain?, 39 Armed Forces & Society 395–414 (2012),

Rachel M. MacNair, Perpetration-Induced Traumatic Stress in Combat Veterans, 8 Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 63-72 (2002).

Mark W. Miller et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5: New Criteria and Controversies, 21 Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 208–220 (2014), 

Alan E. Peterson et al., Assessment and Treatment of Combat-Related PTSD in Returning War Veterans, 18 Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 164–75 (2011),

Paula Schnurr et al., Posttraumatic stress disorder and quality of life: Extension of findings to veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, 29 Clinical Psychology Review 727-735 (2009) 

Hans Pols & Stephanie Oak, War & Military Mental Health The US Psychiatric Response in the 20th Century, 97 Public Health Then and Now 21.32 - 21.42 (Dec. 2007)

Rajeev Ramchand et al., Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan17 Current Psychiatry Reports 575 (2015),

Maria M. Steenkamp & Brett T. Litz, One-Size-Fits-All Approach to PTSD in the VA Not Supported by the Evidence, 69 The American psychologist 706–7 (2014),

Maria Steenkamp, William Nash & Brett Litz, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program, 44 Am. J. Prev. Med. 507–12 (2013),

Terri Tanielian et al, Invisible Wounds of War: Summary and Recommendations for Addressing Psychological and Cognitive Injuries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2008. 

Bessel van der Kolk, Clinical Implications of Neuroscience Research in PTSD, New York Academy of Sciences, 2006

Bessel van der Kolk, The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Trauma in the Healing of Trauma, (2014)

Frank Weathers et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5: New Criteria, New Measures, and Implications for Assessment, 7 Psychol. Inj. and Law 93 -107 (2014)

Blair E. Wisco et al., Posttraumatic stress disorder in the US veteran population: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, 75 The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1338–46 (2014).

Stephen N. Xenakis, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Beyond Best Practices, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 236-44 (2013). 

Stephen N. Xenakis, The Role and Responsibilities of Psychiatry in 21st Century Warfare, 42 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry Law 504-08 (2014).

Kate Yurgil et al., Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines, 71 JAMA psychiatry 149–57 (2014),


Moral Injury

Kent D. Drescher et al., An Exploration of the Viability and Usefulness of the Construct of Moral Injury in War Veterans, 17 Traumatology 8–13 (2011),

W. Brad Johnson, The Morally-Injured Veteran: Some Ethical Considerations, 1 Spirituality in Legal Practice 16-17 (2014),

Brett Litz et al., Moral Injury and Moral Repair in War Veterans: A Preliminary Model and Intervention Strategy, 29 Clinical psychology review 695–706 (2009), (Excerpt, pp. 695-701).

Duncan MacIntosh, PTSD Weaponized; A Theory of Moral Injury, Abstract | Paper

Shira Maguen & Brett Litz, Moral Injury in Veterans of War, Research Quarterly, 23 PTSD Research Quarterly 1–6 (2012).

William P. Nash & Brett T. Litz, Moral Injury: A Mechanism for War-Related Psychological Trauma in Military Family Members, 16 Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 365–375 (2013),

William P. Nash et al., Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale, 178 Military Med. 646–52 (2013),

Jonathan Shay, Moral Injury, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 182–191 (2014) (Excerpt, pp. 182-186).

Nancy Sherman, Afterwar: Healing the Moral Wounds of Soldiers, (Oxford University Press 2015)

Nancy Sherman, Recovering Lost Goodness: Shame, Guilt,and Self-Empathy, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 217-35 (2014)

Alison Flipse Vargas et al., Moral injury themes in combat veterans’ narrative responses from the National Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study., 19 Traumatology 243–250 (2013),

Mark A. Wilson, Moral Grief and Reflective Virtue, in Virtue and the Moral Life: Theological and Philosophical Perspectives (2014)


Legal Responsibility

Omri Berger et al., PTSD as a Criminal Defense: A Review of Case Law, 40 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry Law 509-21 (2012). 

Anthony E. Giardino, Combat Veterans, Mental Health Issues, and the Death Penalty: Addressing the Impact of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury, 77 Fordham L. Rev. 2955 (2009).

Thomas L. Hafemeister & Nicole A. Stockey, Last Stand? The Criminal Responsibility of War Veteranes Returning from Iraw and Afghanistan with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 85 Ind. L.J. 87 (2010). 

Melissa Hamilton, Reinvigorating Actus Reus: The Case for Involuntary Actions by Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 16 Berkeley J. Crim. L. 350 (2011).

Evan R. Seamone, Dismantling America’s Largest Sleeper Cell: The Imperitive to Treat, Rather than Merely Punish, Active Duty Offenders with PTSD Prior to Discharge from the Armed Forces, 27 Nova L. Rev. 479 (2013).

Kathryn Soltis, et al., Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Ethical and Legal Relevance to the Criminal Justice System, 42 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Summer 147-54 (2014).


Stigmatization and Labeling

Benjamin D. Dickstein et al., Targeting Self-Stigma in Returning Military Personnel and Veterans: A Review of Intervention Strategies, 22 Military Psychology 224-36 (2010).

Matthew Friedman, PTSD is “PTSD”, Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma, Sep. 19, 2012,

Elana Newman, Where All Sides Align, Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma, Sep. 19, 2012, .

Frank Ochberg, An Injury, Not a Disorder, Military Review 96–99 (2013),

Kerry Sudom et al., Stigma and Barriers to Mental Health Care in Deployed Canadian Forces Personnel, 24 Military Psychology 414-31 (2012). 


News Clips

James P. Cullen, et all, Vets Suffering from PTSD Need Our HelpUSA Today, Nov. 12, 2015,

Sebastian Junger, How PTSD Became a Problem Far Beyond the Battlefield, Vanity Fair, June 2015

Lauren Koran, Special Ops Commander Tries to Lessen the Stigma of Getting Help, CNN, October 2015

Nicholas Kristof, War WoundsN.Y. Times, Aug. 10, 2012,

David Philipps, In Unit Stalked by Suicide, Veterans Try to Save One Another, N.Y. Times, Sept. 19, 2015,

Douglas A. Pryer, Moral Injury and the American SoldierMoral Injury and Military Suicide, Cicero Magazine, (2014)

Nancy Sherman, The deepest war wound may be the anguish of moral injury, LA Times, Apr. 24, 2015,

David Wood, Moral Injury, The Huffington Post, (2014)



Morten Dige, Explaining the Principle of Mala in Se, 11 Journal of Military Ethics 318-32 (2012).

Robert G. Fuller, Jr., Flashback Morning 

Christopher Frueh et al., Disability Compensation Seeking Among Veterans Evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 54 Psychiatric Services 84–91 (2003),

Paul Heaton et al., Compensating Wounded Warriors, Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation 2012.   

Judith Herman, A Forgotten Historyin Trauma and Recovery: the aftermath of violence—from domestic abuse to political terror 7-32 (1992).

David S. Loughran, Paul Heaton, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Earnings of Military Reservists, Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation, 2013.

Shannon Meehan, Beyond Duty, (2011)

Don Vaughan, Defusing, Military Officer (2015)

Sean Wead, Ethics, Combat, and a Soldier’s Decision to Kill, Military Review 69-81 (2015).