Background Readings

International Court of Justice: Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996.

Declaration of Judge Ferrari Bravo (translation).

Declaration of Judge Herczegh (translation).

Declaration of Judge Shi.

Declaration of Judge Vereshchetin.

Declaration of President Bedjaoui (translation).

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Higgins.

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Koroma.

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Oda.

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Shahabuddeen.

Dissenting Opinion of Judge Weeramantry.

Dissenting Opinion of Vice-President Schwebel.

Separate Opinion of Judge Fleischhauer.

Separate Opinion of Judge Guillaume (translation).

Separate Opinion of Judge Ranjeva (translation).

Official Statements and Reports

2018 Nuclear Posture Review Final Report, U.S. Department of Defense (2018).

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Risk Analysis (Oct. 14, 2016, certified current as of Sept. 5, 2019).

Christopher A. Ford, The Politics of Arms Control: Getting Beyond Post-Cold War Pathologies and Finding Security in a Competitive Environment, U.S. Department of State (Feb. 11, 2020).

Global Britain in a competitive age: The Integrated Review of Security, Defence, Development and Foreign Policy, HM Government (Mar. 2021).

Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, The International Court of Justice (n.d.).

U.S. Commentaries on the Guiding Principles, (Sept. 1, 2020).

U.S. Dep’t of the Air Force, Air Force Doctrine, Annex 3-60 Targeting, 11 (Mar. 15, 2019).

U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, Congressional Research Service (updated Dec. 10, 2020).

Other Reports

Artificial Intelligence and National Security, Congressional Research Service (Nov. 10, 2020).

John R. Harvey, U.S. Nuclear Command and Control for the 21st Century, NAPSNet Special Reports (May 24, 2019).

The US Nuclear Arsenal, Union of Concerned Scientist (Sep.13, 2017).

Scholarship & Other Research

Alfred R. Mele, Intentions, Reasons, and Beliefs: Morals of the Toxin Puzzle, 68 Philosophical Studies (1992).

Benoît Pelopidas, The unbearable lightness of luck. Three sources of overconfidence in the controllability of nuclear crises, 2 European Journal of International Security (2017).

Claire Oakes Finkelstein & Leo Katz, Contrived Defenses and Deterrent Threats: Two Facets of One Problem, 5 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law (2008).

Charles J. Moxley Jr., Unlawfulness of the United Kingdom’s Policy of Nuclear Deterrence––
Invalidity of the Scots High Court’s Decision in Zelter, Disarmament Diplomacy No. 58, (2001).

Charles J. Moxley Jr., et. al., Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, 34 Fordham International Law Journal (2011) 595–696.

Charles J. Moxley Jr., John Burroughs & Jonathan Granoff, Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, 34 Fordham International Law Journal (2011).

Charles Moxley Jr., John Burroughs & Jonathan Granoff, Nuclear Weapons and International Law: A Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime for the 21st Century, 34 Fordham International Law Journal (2011).

Daniel Farrell, Utility Maximization Intentions and the Theory of Rational Choice, 21 Philosophical Topics (1993).

Dakota S. Rudesill, Nuclear Command and Statutory Control, 11 Journal of National Security Law and Policy (2020).

Duncan MacIntosh, Co-operative Solutions to the Prisoner’s Dilemma, Philosophical Studies (1991) 309-321.

Eric J. McFadden, The Legality of Nuclear Weapons: A Response to Corwin, 6 Penn State International Law Review (1988).

Gerald Dworkin, Nuclear Intentions, 95 Ethics (1985).

Gregory Kavka, Some Paradoxes of Deterrence, 75 The Journal of Philosophy (1978).

International Group of Experts, Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations, 475 (Michael N. Schmitt ed., 2017).

Isha Jain & Bhavesh Seth, India’s Nuclear Force Doctrine: Through the Lens of Jus Ad Bellum, 32 Leiden Journal of International Law (2019) 111-129.

Jeffrey G. Lewis & Bruno Tertrais, OP #45: The Finger on the Button: The Authority to Use Nuclear Weapons in Nuclear-Armed States, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (2019).

John Burroughs, Looking Back: The 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, Arms Control Association (2016).

John Burroughs, Remarks, Nuclear Weapons and International Law 2020, New York State Bar Association (2020).

John P. Holdren, The overwhelming case for no first use, 17 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (2020) 3-7.

Jonathan Granoff, Nuclear Weapons, Ethics, Morals and Law, Brigham Young University Law Review (2000).

Jonathan Granoff, The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and Its 2005 Review Conference: A Legal and Political Analysis, International Law and Politics (2007).

Karlyn Kohrs Campbell & Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Rhetoric and Presidential Politics, M. J. MacDonald ed., Oxford University Press (2014).

Kevin Chilton & Greg Weaver, Waging Deterrence in the Twenty-First Century, Strategic Studies Quarterly (2009).

Kevin Govern, National Solutions to an International Scourge: Prosecuting Piracy Domestically as a Viable Alternative to International Tribunals, 19 University of Miami International & Comparative Law Review (2011).

Lawrence Alexander, The Doomsday Machine: Proportionality, Punishment and Prevention, 63 The Monist (1980).

Matthew Waxman, Regulating Resort to Force: Form and Substance of the U.N. Charter Regime, 24 The European Journal of International Law (2013).

Matthew Waxman, The Power to Threaten War, The Yale Law Journal (2013).

Michael Dummett, The Morality of Deterrence, Canadian Journal of Philosophy (1986).

Michael T. Klare, Cyber Battles, Nuclear Outcomes? Dangerous New Pathways to Escalation, Arms Control Association, (Nov. 2019).

Michael T. Klare, ‘Skynet’ Revisited: The Dangerous Allure of Nuclear Command Automation, Arms Control Association, (April 2020). 

Michael N. Schmitt, Peacetime Cyber Responses and Wartime Cyber Operations Under International Law: An Analytical Vade Mecum, 8 Harv. Sec. L. J. 239, 278 (2017).

Michael N. Schmitt, Preemptive Strategies in International Law, 24 Mich. J. Int’l L. 513, 535 (2003).

Michael N. Schmitt & Maj. Michael Schauss, Uncertainty in the Law of Targeting: Towards a Cognitive Framework, 10 Harv. Sec. L. J. 148, 174 (2019).

Nuclear Weapons Under International Law: An Overview, Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights (Oct. 2014).

Paul Robinson & John Darley, Does Criminal Law Deter? A Behavioral Science Investigation, 24 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (2004).

Randall Dipert, Preventive War and the Epistemological Dimension of the Morality of War, 5 Journal of Military Ethics (2006).

Scott D. Sagan and Allen S. Weiner, The Rule of Law and the Role of Strategy in U.S. Nuclear Doctrine, International Security 2021; 45 (4): 126–166. 

Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre, 1 Philosophy & Public Affairs (1972) 123-144.

Books & Chapters

Allen Buchanan, Justifying Preventive War, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification (2007) ch. 5.

Anthony Kenny, The Logic of Deterrence (1985) chs. 4-6.

Charles J. Moxley Jr., Nuclear Weapons and International Law in the Post Cold War World, Austin & Winfield (2000).

Claire Finkelstein, Threats and Preemptive Practices, 5 Legal Theory (1999) 311–338.

David Rodin, The Problem with Prevention, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification (2007) ch. 6.

Edward F. McClennen, Prisoner’s Dilemma and Resolute Choice, in Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation (1985).

John Burroughs, The Legality of Threat Or Use of Nuclear Weapons: A Guide to the Historic Opinion of the International Court of Justice (1998).

John Burroughs & Jennifer Nordstrom, Nuclear Weapons and Compliance with International Humanitarian Law: Part I: The International Framework, sec. 1.1-1.4.

Keith B. Payne, The Fallacies of Cold War Deterrence and a New Direction (2001) ch. 2.

Martin J. Sherwin, Gambling with Armageddon: Nuclear Roulette from Hiroshima to the Cuban Missile Crisis (2020).

Richard A. McCormick, Nuclear Deterrence and the Problem of Intention, in Catholics and Nuclear War (1983) 168-182.

Richard Ned Lebow & Janice Stein, We All Lost the Cold War (1994) ch. 14.

Robert Butterworth, Peter Marquez, John Sheldon & Eric Sterner, Returning to Fundamentals: Deterrence and U.S. National Security in the 21st Century, George C. Marshall Institute (2011).

Ruud Van Dijk, Nuclear weapons and the Cold War, in The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War (Artemy M. Kalinovsky & Craig Daigle eds., 2014) 275-291.

Stephen J. Cimbala, Nuclear Deterrence in a Multipolar World: The U.S., Russia and Security Challenges (2019).

Suzanne Uniacke, On Getting One’s Retaliation in First, Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification (2007) ch. 3.

News Articles, Magazines, Blogs

Adam Mount, The Case Against New Nuclear Weapons, Center for American Progress (May 4, 2017).

Adam Mount & Pranay Vaddi, Better Informing a President’s Decision on Nuclear Use, Lawfare (Nov. 9, 2020).

Al Mauroni, Deterrence: I Don’t Think It Means What You Think It Means, Modern War Institute at West Point (Oct. 8, 2019).

Alex Wellerstein, Nukemap (Version 2.7), The Nuclear Secrecy Blog (2012-2020).

Ariana Smith, Nuclear weapons and the legal norms of non-use and abolition, Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy (Oct. 13, 2020).

Ben Freeman & Ose Okooboh, Nuclear War Profiteers are Driving the Nukes Debate, The Baraza (Nov. 17, 2020).

Charles Dunlap, Is the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Immoral?, War on the Rocks (Aug. 2, 2017). 

Christopher Ford, Conventional ‘Replacement’ of Nuclear Weapons?, Hudson Institute (Nov. 17, 2020).

Craig S. Smith, A.I. Here, There, Everywhere, The New York Times (Mar. 9, 2021).

Dakota S. Rudesill, Good Governance Paper No. 20: Repairing and Strengthening Norms of Nuclear Restraint, Just Security (Nov. 1, 2020).

Dan Sabbagh, Cap on Trident nuclear warhead stockpile to rise by more than 40%, The Guardian (Mar. 16, 2021).

David P. Barash, Nuclear deterrence is a myth. And a lethal one at that, The Guardian (Jan. 14, 2018).

Gro Nystuen & Kjølv Egeland, A ‘Legal Gap’? Nuclear Weapons Under International Law, Arms Control Association (Mar. 2016).

Jules Zacher & Theo Wilson, July Twitter hack underscores the need to nix ‘sole authority’, The Rule of Law Post (Aug. 19, 2020).

Matthew Waxman, Constitutional Power to Threaten War: Three Points on Syria, Lawfare (Sep. 3, 2013).

Parkha Durrani, Precision Technologies: Replacement to Conventional Weapons? Modern Diplomacy (Jul. 21, 2020).

Pete McKenzie, America’s Allies Are Becoming a Nuclear-Proliferation Threat, Defense One (Mar. 25, 2020).

Sydney Freedberg, Jr., No AI for Nuclear Command and Control: JAIC’s Shanahan, Breaking Defense (Sept. 25, 2019).

Tom Collina & William Perry, Who Can We Trust With the Nuclear Button? No One, The New York Times (Jun. 22, 2020).

Usha Sahay, The Human Face of Nuclear Deterrence, War on the Rocks, (Feb. 10 2021).

Vincent Boulanin, AI & Global Governance: AI and Nuclear Weapons - Promise and Perils of AI for Nuclear Stability, United Nations University Centre for Policy Research, (Dec. 7, 2018).