Background Readings

Session 1: The Value of Cultural Heritage

Bokova, Irina. “Culture in the Cross Hairs.” New York Times (Dec. 2, 2012).

Bokova, Irina. “Culture on the Front Line of New Wars.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 22, no. 1 (2015): 289-296.

Brown, Michael F. “Heritage trouble: recent work on the protection of intangible cultural property.” International Journal of Cultural Property 12, no. 1 (2005): 40-61.

Frigo, M. “Cultural Property v. Cultural Heritage: A ‘Battle of Concepts’ in International Law.” International Review of the Red Cross 86, no. 854 (2004): 367-78.

Singh, K. “Universal Museums: The View from Below.” Witness to History: A Compendium of Documents and Writings on the Return of Cultural Objects (2009): 123-129.

Smith, Laurajane. “Heritage as a Cultural Process.” In: L. Smith (ed.) Uses of heritage. London: Routledge (2006): 44-84.


Session 2: Intelligence and the Documentation of Cultural Destruction

Al Quntar, Salam, and Brian I. Daniels. “Responses to the Destruction of Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Critical Review of Current Efforts.” International Journal of Islamic Architecture 5, no. 2 (2016): 381-397.

American Association of the Advancement of Sciences. Conflict in Aleppo, Syria: A Retrospective Analysis. (2013).

Campana, Stefano, Roberto Scopigno, Gabriella Carpentiero and Marianna Cirillo, eds. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. (2016).

Casana, J., & M. Panahipour. “Satellite-Based Monitoring of Looting and Damage to Archaeological Sites in Syria.” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies 2, no. 2 (2014): 128-151.

Cunliffe, Emma. “Damage to the Soul: Syria’s Cultural Heritage in Conflict.” Global Heritage Fund (2012).

Eakin, Hugh. “Ancient Syrian Sites: A Different Story of Destruction.” The New York Review of Books (2016).

Gerstenblith, Patty. “The Obligations Contained in International Treaties of Armed Forces to Protect Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict.” In L. Rush, ed., Archaeology, Cultural Property, and the Military, 4-14. Boydell Press, 2010.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “The Destruction of Cultural Heritage: A Crime Against Property or a Crime Against People?” The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law 15 (2016): 336-393.

Hardy, Samuel Andrew. “Using open-source data to identify participation in the illicit antiquities trade: A case study on the Cypriot Civil War.” European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 20, no. 4 (2014): 459-474.

Malko, Helen. “Preserving the Past: The Mapping Mesopotamian Monuments Project.” The ASOR Blog (Jan. 5, 2016).


Session 3: Law of War Responsibilities to Protect Cultural Property

Al Quntar, S. “Syrian Cultural Property in the Crossfire: Reality and Effectiveness of Protection Efforts.” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies 1, no. 4 (2013): 348-351.

Ali, C. “Syrian Heritage under Threat.” Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Studies 1, no. 4 (2013): 351-366.

Department of Defense, Cultural Property Protection - Theory.

Hladík, Jan. “The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Some Observations on the Implementation at the National Level.” MUSEUM International 228 (2005): 1-7.

Marlowe, Ann. “A Heritage in Ruins.” New York Times (June 2, 2011).

Pollock, Susan. “Archaeology and Contemporary Warfare.” Annual Review of Anthropology 45 (2016): 215-231

Rush, Laurie. “Working with the military to protect archaeological sites and other forms of cultural property.” World Archaeology 44, no. 3 (2012): 359-377.

Sandholtz, Wayne. “The Iraqi National Museum and International Law: A Duty to Protect.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 44 (2005): 185-240.

The 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Available at:

Thurlow, M. “Protecting Cultural property in Iraq: How American Military Policy Comports with International Law.” Yale Human Rights and Development Journal 8, no. 1 (2014).

Van Der Auwera, Sigrid. “Peace Operations and the Protection of Cultural Property During and After Armed Conflict.” International Peacekeeping 17, no. 1 (2010): 3-16.


Session 4: Repatriation of and Compensation for Stolen Art and Artifacts

Gerstenblith, Patty. “Controlling the International Market in Antiquities: Reducing the Harm, Preserving the Past.” Chicago Journal of International Law 8 (Summer 2007): 169-195.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “For Better and For Worse: Evolving United States Policy on Cultural Property Litigation and Restitution.” International Journal of Cultural Property 22 (2015): 357-378.

Huang, Edythe E. “Looting in Iraq, Five Years Later: An Evaluation of the International Protection, Recovery, and Repatriation of Looted Cultural Artifacts.” Rutgers Race and Law Review 10, no. 1 (2008): 183-223.

Kline, Thomas R. “Restitution Roulette: A Comparison of U.S. And European Approaches to Nazi-Era Art Looting Claims.” IFAR Journal 16, no. 3 (2015): 56-64.

Kline, Thomas R. “Will Third Visit to Ninth Circuit Be Déjà Vu All Over Again for Norton Simon Museum?” IFAR Journal 17, nos. 2 and 3 (2016): 16-21.

Sherry, James E. “U.S. Legal Mechanisms for the Repatriation of Cultural Property.” The George Washington International Law Review 37, no. 2 (2005): 511-535.

Swanson, Stephanie. “Repatriating Cultural Property: The Dispute Between Yale and Peru Over the Treasures of Machu Picchu.” San Diego International Law Journal 10 (2009): 469–94.

Thompson, Erin L. “Cultural Losses and Cultural Gains: Ethical Dilemmas in WWII-Looted Art Repatriation Claims Against Public Institutions.” Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 33 (2010): 407-442.

Wylie, Alison. “Ethical Dilemmas in Archaeological Practice: Looting, Repatriation, Stewardship, and the (Trans)formation of Disciplinary Identity.” Perspectives on Science 4, no. 2 (1996): 154-194.

Zamora, Cristina Bubba. “Collectors versus native peoples: the repatriation of the Sacred Weavings of Coroma, Bolivia.” Museum Anthropology 20, no. 3 (1996): 39-44.


Section 5: Destruction, Looting, and Accountability

“The Slow Acceptance That Destroying Cultural Heritage Is a War Crime.” The Economist (Sept. 29, 2016).

Abtahi, Hirad. “The Protection of Cultural Property in Times of Armed Conflict: The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 14 (2001): 1-32.

Al-Azm, Amr. “The Pillaging of Syria’s Cultural Heritage.” Middle East Institute (May 22, 2015).

Amineddoleh, Leila. “Protecting Cultural Heritage by Strictly Scrutinizing Museum Acquisitions.” Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 24 (2014): 729-781.

Brodie, Neil, and Colin Renfrew. “Looting and the world’s archaeological heritage: the inadequate response.” Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34 (2005): 343-361.

Daniels, Brian I. “Is the destruction of cultural property a war crime?” Apollo Magazine (Nov. 28, 2016).

Daniels, Brian I. and Katharyn Hanson. “Archaeological Site Looting in Syria and Iraq: A Review of the Evidence.”

Hardy, Samuel A. “The conflict antiquities trade: A historical overview.” Countering the illicit traffic in cultural goods: The global challenge of protecting the world’s heritage (2015): 21-31.

Holtorf, Cornelius. “Can less be more? Heritage in the age of terrorism.” Public Archaeology 5, no. 2 (2006): 101-109.

Latour, Bruno. “What is iconoclash?” Images: A Reader. London: SAGE (2006): 309-314.

Lostal, M. “Syria’s World Cultural Heritage and Individual Criminal Responsibility.” International Review of Law (2015): 3.

Mackenzie, Simon, and Penny Green. “Performative Regulation: A Case Study in How Powerful People Avoid Criminal Labels.” British Journal of Criminology 48, no. 2 (2008): 138-153.

Mackenzie, Simon and Tess Davis. “Temple Looting in Cambodia Anatomy of a Statue Trafficking Network.” British Journal of Criminology 54 (2014): 722-740.

Ralby, Ian M. “Prosecuting Cultural Property Crimes in Iraq.” Georgetown Journal of International Law 37, no. 1 (2005): 165-192.


Section 6: Domestic and International Legal Reform

Borgstede, Greg. “Cultural Property, the Palermo Convention, and Transnational Organized Crime.International Journal of Cultural Property 21, no. 3 (2014): 281-290.

Frulli, M. “The Criminalization of Offences against Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict: The Quest for Consistency.” European Journal of International Law 22, no. 1 (2011): 203-217.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “From Bamiyan to Baghdad: Warfare and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage at the Beginning of the 21st Century.” Georgetown Journal of International Law 37 (2006): 245-351.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “Implementation of the 1970 UNESCO Convention by the United States and Other Market Nations.” Chapter in a forthcoming publication: Jane Anderson and Haidy Geismer, eds. The Routledge Companion to Cultural Property. Routledge Press, 2017.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “The Legal Framework for the Prosecution of Crimes Involving Archaeological Objects.” Cultural Property Law 64, no. 2 (March 2016): 5-16.

Gerstenblith, Patty. “The Law as Mediator Between Archaeology and Collecting.” Internet Archaeology (2013).

Kenney, Cortelyou C. 2011. “Reframing Indigenous Cultural Artifacts Disputes: An Intellectual Property-Based Approach.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 28 (2011): 501–52.

Mackenzie, Simon, and Penny Green. “Criminalising the market in illicit antiquities: An evaluation of the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003.” (2007).

Muhesen, C. E., & N. Lostal. “The Destruction of Cultural Property in the Syrian Conflict: Legal Implications and Obligations.” International Journal of Cultural Property 23, no. 1 (2015): 1-31.


Section 7: Collaborative Efforts to Protect Cultural Heritage: Where Do We Go From Here?

Bernbeck, Reinhard. “War-time academic professionalism.” Public Archaeology 3, no. 2 (2003): 112-116.

Brodie, Neil. “The Market in Iraqi Antiquities 1980–2009 and Academic Involvement in the Marketing Process.” In Manacorda, S., and D. Chappell, eds., Crime in the Art and Antiquities World, 117-133. Springer, 2011.

Cuno, James. “The Responsibility to Protect the World’s Cultural Heritage.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2016): 97-109.

Daniels, Brian I. and Corine Wegener. “Heritage at Risk: Safeguarding Museums During Conflict.” Museum 95, no. 4 (July-Aug. 2016): 26-31.

Hamilakis, Y. “The ‘War on Terror’ and the Military–Archaeology Complex: Iraq, Ethics, and Neo-Colonialism.” Archaeologies Arch 5, no. 1 (2009): 39-65

Leventhal, Richard L., and Brian I. Daniels. “‘Orphaned Objects,’ Ethical Standards, and the Acquisition of Antiquities.” DePaul Journal of Art, Technology, and Intellectual Property Law 23, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 339-361.

Meskell, Lynn. “Human rights and heritage ethics.” Anthropological Quarterly 83, no. 4 (2010): 839-859.

Reed, Victoria. “Due Diligence, Provenance Research, and the Acquisition Process at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.” DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law 23, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 363-373.