Required Readings

Session 1: The Value of Cultural Heritage

Blanche, Ed. “Hammering History.The Middle East (April 2014): 26-29.

Bennoune, Karima. UN General Assembly Cultural Heritage Report from 9 Aug. 2016.

Gillman, Derek. “Cosmopolitanism and particularism through the lens of basic values.” CERL Conference (2017).


Session 2: Intelligence and the Documentation of Cultural Destruction

Forcese, Craig. “Spies Without Borders: International Law and Intelligence Collection.” Journal of National Security Law and Policy 5, no. 1 (June 2011): 179-210.

Bewley, Robert. “Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa.” CERL Conference (2017).

Leoni, Elena. “Geospatial Accuracy Matters! A preliminary study about the impact on Cultural Property in Afghanistan.” CERL Conference (2017).

Wolfinbarger, Susan R. “Satellite Imaging of Cultural Sites in Conflict: A Cautionary Note.” Professional Ethics Report 28, no. 1 (Winter 2015): 3-4.


Session 3: Law of War Responsibilities to Protect Cultural Property

Gerstenblith, Patty. “Beyond the 1954 Hague Convention.” In R. Albro and B. Ivey, eds., Cultural Awareness in the Military: Developments for Future Humanitarian Cooperation, 83-99. Macmillan, 2014.

Rosén, Frederik. Paper for UNESCO expert group meeting on Cultural Heritage Destruction and R2P in Paris, 26-27 Nov. 2015.

Rush, Laurie. “The Importance of Training Cultural Property Protection: An Example from the U.S. Army.” CERL Conference (2017).


Session 4: Repatriation of and Compensation for Stolen Art and Artifacts

Milosch, Jane. “PREPing Our Way Forward: World War II-era Provenance Research in Service of Preservation of Cultural Heritage.” CERL Conference. (2017).

Reed, Victoria. “Frans Hals, Hitler, and the Lilienfeld Collection: A Case Study of Expropriation in Austria.” CERL Conference (2017).

Kline, Thomas R. “Cultural Heritage Partners, PLLC, Brief of Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiff, Saher v. Norton Simon Museum of Art,et al., 9th Cir. Court of App., Mar. 27, 2017

Kersel, Morag M. “Acquisition Apologetics: A Case for Saving the Past for the Future?Brown Journal of World Affairs 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 2016): pp. 109-126.

Cuno, James. “Culture War: The Case Against Repatriating Museum Artifacts.” Foreign Affairs 93, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 2014): pp. 119-124.


Session 5: Destruction, Looting, and Accountability

Goldstone, Richard A. “The War Crime of Destroying Cultural Property.” International Judicial Monitor (Summer 2016).

Carstens, Anne-Marie. “The Relative Gravity of Cultural Heritage Destruction as a War Crime.” CERL Conference (2017).

Govern, Kevin. “Licit War Trophies as a Means of Preserving Art and Culture in Times of War.” CERL Conference (2017).


Session 6: Domestic and International Legal ReforM

Gerstenblith, Patty. “Improving the Law of Armed Conflict for the Protection of Cultural Heritage.” CERL Conference (2017).

MacIntosh, Duncan. “Culture Weaponized: A Contrarian Theory of the Sometime Appropriateness of the Destruction, Theft and Trade of Art and Cultural Artifacts in Armed Conflict.” CERL Conference (2017).

Varner, Elizabeth. “U.S. Obligations Underlying the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Protocol II.” CERL Conference. (2017).


Session 7: Collaborative Efforts to Protect Cultural Heritage: Where Do We Go From Here?

Al Quntar, Salam, Katharyn Hanson, Brian I. Daniels, and Corine Wegener. “Responding to a Cultural Heritage Crisis: The Example of the Safeguarding the Heritage of Syria and Iraq Project.” Near Eastern Archaeology 78, no. 3 (Sept. 2015): 154-160.

Bokova, Irina. “Fighting Cultural Cleansing: Harnessing the Law to Preserve Cultural Heritage.” Harvard International Review 36, no. 4 (Summer 2015): 40-45.

Lehr, Deborah. “The Significance of International Coordination in the Fight Against Cultural Racketeering: The Launch of the Cairo Conference.” CERL Conference (2017).

Rosén, Frederik. NATO-led Military Operations and Cultural Property Protection.